What is breast cancer?
Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women worldwide. This type of cancer is the type of cancer that has the highest incidence of cervical cancer worldwide after lung cancer. According to the statistics, one in every 8 women has breast cancer at certain times of life.
Cancer cells usually consist of milk produced in the lobules of the breasts or milk dranej in the breast. Breast cancer occurs most often in menopausal women, but may occur at any age. Breast cancer is very rare in men. Every 100 women are seen in a man.
When symptoms of breast cancer are suspected, action should be taken quickly. When cancer is diagnosed at an early stage (in the first phase), the success rate of breast cancer treatment is over 90%. You may find suspicious stiffness when checking your own breast, your physician may feel a stiffness in your clinical breast examination, or an abnormal region in the breast tissue may occur in a screening test such as mammography or breast MRI.
What are the risk factors for breast cancer?
Breast cancer risk factors can be classified as preventable risks and unchangeable risks. Preventable risks can be listed as factors that can change in people’s lives: reducing cigarette and alcohol consumption, creating a lively life, and eating a healthy diet. The risks that cannot be changed can be listed as age, gender, intense breast tissue, early menstruation or positive family history with late menopause.
What are the methods used in the diagnosis of breast cancer?
The tests to be performed by your doctor for the breast cancer treatment program to be applied in accordance with the symptoms are made to understand whether the tumor is confined to the area where it begins (local) or whether it is spread to other parts of your body (metastasis).
The following methods are used for the diagnosis of breast cancer.
Mammography: It is a method based on the examination of breast tissue with X-rays. The first mammography taken when the patient had no complaints was the baseline mammography. It can be done for mammography screening or diagnostic purposes. Screening mammography is performed to people who have no complaints, while the diagnostic mass may have a suspicious mass or more detailed examination of the area.
Ultrasonography: It works with the reflection of sound waves from the tissues. It is used to understand whether a suspected mass or area in the mammography, or the mass of the patient, is liquid or solid. The masses, in other words, cysts do not pose a significant threat to cancer. On the other hand, solid l solid ”masses are the tumors of the breast. The distinction that these are good or malignant must be followed by regular follow-ups or other advanced methods.
Galactography: The nipple is a medicine that draws drugs from the head of the nipple. It is mostly applied in patients with nipple discharge.
Fine needle biopsy: This is a standard injector needle that can be sampled at the cellular level and examined under a microscope.
Thick needle biopsy: This is done by a thick needle with a piece of tissue to be examined.
Stereotaxic biopsy: The location of the mass is determined by a special device and taken exactly from that point.
Stereotaxic marking: A special device is used to see a suspicious area and leave a thin wire.
Surgical biopsy: It is performed in the operating room and the entire mass is removed and examined under a microscope.
What are the stages of breast cancer?
As with all types of cancer, early diagnosis is also important in breast cancer. If cancer is diagnosed in the early period, breast cancer treatment can often be achieved without breast removal.