The incidence of obesity, which is due to an increase in the amount of fat in the body, is increasing in the world and in our country. Studies show that children and young people in Turkey is 10-25 percent are overweight or obese. He stated that it is essential to provide healthy lifestyles and lifestyle changes in the treatment of obesity. Dr. Cengiz Kara explained the causes and treatment of obesity.
Basically, there are two types of obesity: simple obesity caused by lifestyle. Obesity caused by endocrine and genetic disorders. Obesity is a rare condition because of an endocrine or genetic disease in the body. In 95 percent of children, obesity is caused by the energy imbalance between calories and calories consumed. Our bodies spend energy to do daily activities such as walking, running, talking, digesting food, breathing, and maintaining body temperature. In addition, children need energy to grow. This energy is used for daily activities and is used to grow. If the energy (calories) taken with the nutrients is much, but the energy spent by the body to do the daily work is less, then the increased energy is stored in the body as the mass of fat. Thus, depending on the increased fat mass, weight increases and obesity occurs. Each additional 7000 calories taken to the body are stored as approximately 1 kilo of fat. Calorie is easy to take, it is difficult to burn. Unfortunately, in addition to faulty parental attitudes and wrong eating habits, today’s living conditions are also suitable for children.
What are the health problems caused by obesity?
Obesity causes various health problems and diseases starting from childhood. Obesity shortens the life expectancy of non-smoker adults between the ages of 40 and 7-8 years, and those who drink 13-14 years. Obesity starting from childhood is estimated to shorten life expectancy by 15-20 years.
• Insulin resistance syndrome (Metabolic syndrome)
• Type 2 diabetes (Diabetes)
• Hypertension (High blood pressure)
• Dyslipidemia (height in blood fats)
• Atherosclerosis and coronary heart diseases (obstruction of veins)
• Kidney diseases
• Early adolescence
• In irregularities and hair problems in girls
• Gall bladder stones and inflammation
• Liver and hepatitis
• Respiratory disorder in sleep, short breathing stops, snoring
• Respiratory infections and asthma
Skeletal problems, hip joint gliding, limb flexion
• Skin problems, inflammation, darkening of the skin in the region of the fold
• Increased risk of cancer
• Mental problems, depression
How is the treatment of obesity in children?
• If there is any underlying disease, it should be investigated: Firstly, a specialist physician evaluates the child and investigates the health problems caused by obesity. If a hormonal-metabolic problem has been identified, its treatment is a priority. In children with simple obesity, nutrition and lifestyle rearrangement (balanced diet, regular exercise and increased mobility in daily life) are required.
• Families should cooperate and support the child: the cooperation of the whole family is very important. The purpose of the treatment of obesity in children is not to provide weight reduction only in a certain period of time; Stopping weight gain is sufficient in many children with mild to moderate weight. The main objective is to prevent the formation of adult obesity by providing lifelong healthy eating and lifestyle changes.
The diet plan should be revised: Dietary models in adults and excessive restriction of caloric intake are not appropriate in childhood as children continue to grow. Limiting the calorie intake disturbs the child’s growth. It is important that the nutrition plan is in accordance with the age and gender of the child under the supervision of a specialist physician and that the growth and development of the child is monitored regularly.
Activity should be increased: Another important issue in the treatment is increasing the activity. In addition to the usual daily activity in obese children, it is recommended to have at least half an hour of moderate activity (which may be in musical or playing style), regular sports activities on weekends and walking.
Lifelong behavior change should be provided: The child should be provided with psychological support to adapt to the nutrition plan and to maintain a more active lifestyle, to abandon the view of food as a reward and target.