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What Is Cervical Cancer, Symptoms and Treatment
What is cervical cancer?
Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer in developing and underdeveloped countries. Every year around 500,000 new cervical cancers are diagnosed worldwide. Cervical cancer, which usually occurs around 50 years of age, has started to be seen in young women in recent years. Although breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, it is a life-threatening feature and cervical cancer is the leading cause of breast cancer.
HPV (oma Human Papilloma Viruses HP) virus, which is responsible for almost all cervical cancers, is not very symptomatic and highly contagious. Most women defeat the HPV virus they encounter in a period of their life with the help of their own body defense system. Some HPV viruses are powerful in this defense system and cause cervical cancer. Taking measures to protect the HPV virus from causing the disease and conducting regular health checks helps the disease to be detected in the early stages of the disease and success in the treatment.
What is HPV, How is it transmitted?
HPV is a sexually transmitted virus that can cause cervical cancer. HPV (Human papilloma virus), which is seen in more than 95% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer, is a virus that infects the genital area and spreads through contact. Especially in women, it causes warts in the sexual area and cancer in the cervix, external genital area and reproductive tract. The HPV virus is highly insidious and can continue to spread for months without showing any symptoms. The symptoms of the virus are found to be old silent infection ”when they occur several months or years after infection.
Women with HPV virus can cause genital warts in men, cervical cancer in women as well as in men can cause cancer of the penis. HPV, which is a serious infection should be taken seriously by the immune system of people can be controlled. It should be kept in mind that a virus, which cannot be neutralized by the immune system, can survive for years without any symptoms. Without any complaints, the person can carry the infection for many years. This does not prevent the spread of the disease, but the virus can continue to be transmitted during the relationship.
HPV virus types are divided into risk groups according to the possibility of causing cervical cancer. The types that cause more warts are in the low risk group for cervical cancer. Therefore, each genital wart can be cervical cancer is not the case is not the case.
Genital Wart Treatment
Warts caused by HPV virus infection; by burning, freezing, surgical or local creams. As a result of this treatment, the disappearance of genital warts does not mean that it will not occur again. Some people do not repeat the genital wart after treatment; in some cases, genital wart formation may be observed at frequent intervals. Each new genital wart formation should be repeated. In HPV virus infections, it is known that the person can spontaneously dispose of the virus without treatment.
Symptoms of Cervical Cancer
Symptoms of cervical cancer may not manifest in the early stages. The naked eye or gynecological examination may not show any problem in the cervix. With the vaginal discharge called the smear test or the devices showing the cervical spine called büyü colposcope r, changes can be noticed, and the definitive diagnosis can be made with the biopsy taken from the suspicious area.
Symptoms of cervical cancer occur more often in the advanced stages of the disease. Symptoms such as bloody discharge, bleeding after sexual intercourse and irregular menstruation are among the symptoms of cervical cancer. In advanced cases, the tumor may be noticed even during the examination. As cervical cancer progresses, urinary problems, defecation difficulties and leg pains are seen.
Bleedings which occur unexpectedly immediately after sexual intercourse, which is one of the symptoms of cervical cancer, or the next day, is called er post-coital bleeding Rah. Post-coital bleeding is an important finding and may be an early sign of cervical cancer.
Genital warts caused by HPV are not a sign of cervical cancer. Because some types of HPV causes genital warts and some types cause changes in the cells in the cervix. However, a detailed examination and HPV typing should be performed with the recognition of genital warts. In order to determine whether a person has HPV infection, the vaginal swab or the wart itself is considered as a model. According to the results of the examination, the type of HPV infection, if any, can be determined.
Symptoms of cervical cancer can be summarized in this way;
Urinary and fecal leakage from the vagina
Loss of appetite
Bone pain and fractures
Diagnosis of Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer can be easily diagnosed with gynecological examination and in Smear Test “. Biopsy in cervical cancer with a success rate of 80-85% when caught and treated at an early stage is very important for the diagnosis of the disease and an accurate treatment plan.
The first step in cervical cancer is the diagnosis of cancer and the stage of cancer. Therefore, biopsy is taken from the cervix and cancer staging is performed. Cervical cancer staging is defined according to the spread of cancer in the body. Staging is based on radiological and other diagnostic tests, as well as pelvic and rectal examination. These tests are used in the diagnosis of cervical cancer other than smear and biopsy;
What is Smear Test?
The Smear test is a simple and painless method of cancer screening. Women smear test once a year is very important for cervical cancer prevention. The smear test is performed in two ways. In classical method; The discharge is applied on a glass and after it is fixed with a special spray it is sent to the laboratory. In the second way; the material taken is discharged into a special liquid in a bottle. In this way, it is sent to the laboratory and there are certain stages and microscopic examination is performed.
All women who have an active sexual life over the age of 21 years should take a smear test once a year. If active sexual life has begun before this age, it is recommended to perform a smear test within the first three years of age. Tests should not be disturbed during menopause. After the age of 65, if the patient has at least three normal smear test results, smear tests may be discontinued with the knowledge of the doctor. In addition, if a suspicious condition is found in the smear test, the test may be performed more frequently or further examination may be performed.
Colposcopy: The examination of the epithelium by laying the cervix by looking at the cervix with a special instrument similar to a binocular. Cervical cancer is not an event that begins in a day. The deterioration in cells starts over time and gradually. It is possible to follow these changes with a colposcopic examination. If the colposcopy examination is evaluated together with the smear, the error rate decreases significantly.
These tests are also used in the diagnosis and staging of cervical cancer .;
Rectovaginal examination; In this test the breech and vaginal area are examined at the same time. It is a simple pelvic examination that can be performed in practice conditions. It is understood that the cancer is spread out of the cervix.
CT or BAT scan; A CT scan, also referred to as computed tomography or computerized axial tomography, begins with a radio-opaque substance being injected or injected intravenously. This substance provides better visualization of the internal organs in x-rays.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) screening; This test uses magnetic radio waves and computers to visualize internal organs and tissues.
PET (Positrom Emission Tomography) screening; Radioactive glucose is injected into the vein and the body regions in which glucose is used in high rates are determined. Cancer cells are more active than normal cells and use more glucose. In this test the cancer cells appear brighter.
In addition, lung film and blood count may be required to determine the extent of cancer spreading into the breast or lungs.
Cervical Cancer Phases
CIN 1, CIN 2, CIN 3 cervical cancer according to the severity of the disease in the process of cervical cancer types are available. 70-90% in the first stage, 40-45% in the second stage and 30-35% in the third stage may cause spontaneous regression. In patients who are not receiving any treatment, the disease is transformed into advanced stage cancer over the years. In the early stages, the uterus is not required to be removed and the LEEP can be partially removed by simple surgical procedures called conization. These patients can be pregnant and have a baby after treatment.
Cervical cancer stages can be listed as follows;
Stage 0: Abnormal cells are in the innermost layer of the cervix. It is also called carcinoma insutu.
Stage I: Cancer cells are found only in the cervix. Tumor size may vary from 3 mm to 4 cm.
Stage II A: The cancer has spread to the upper two thirds of the vagina out of the cervix, but has not spread to the tissues around the uterus.
Stage II B: The cancer is spread out of the cervix beyond the upper third of the vagina and the tissues around the uterus.
Stage III A: Cancer spread to the lower part of the vagina but not on the pelvic wall.
Stage IIIB: Cancer blocked ureters, which are tubes that spread to the pelvic wall or where the kidneys are attached to the bladder.
Stage IV: Cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum or other parts of the body, except for the cervix.